The theme of parallel experimentation is used to recast and pull together dynamic and pluralistic theories in economics, political theory, philosophy of science, and social learning.

## Introduction to Series-Parallel Duality

This is an introduction to the mathematics of series-parallel duality which shows many unexpected applications.

## Series-Parallel Duality: Part II: Financial arithmetic

In financial arithmetic and in the appraisal literature, it has been noticed that the basic formulas occur in pairs, one being the reciprocal of the other. This Part II of the series-parallel duality post shows that these reciprocal formulas are an example of the SP duality normally associated with electrical circuit theory.

## Series-Parallel Duality: Part I: Combating Series Chauvinism

This post describes the duality between the usual (series) addition and the dual parallel addition. This duality is normally considered in electrical circuit theory and combinatorics, but it has a much wider applications. In Part I of this post, the focus is on developing series-parallel dual formulasâ€”in contrast to the usual focus on formulas using only the series sum.